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Ruby中处理时间的一些基本操作

新客网 XKER.COM 时间:2015-05-13 10:21:30  评论:

获取当前日期和时间:

以下是一个简单的例子,以获得当前的日期和时间:

#!/usr/bin/ruby -w

time1 = Time.new

puts "Current Time : " + time1.inspect

# Time.now is a synonym:
time2 = Time.now
puts "Current Time : " + time2.inspect

这将产生以下结果:

Current Time : Mon Jun 02 12:02:39 -0700 2008
Current Time : Mon Jun 02 12:02:39 -0700 2008

获取组件的日期和时间:

我们可以用 Time  对象来获取日期和时间的各个组成部分。下面的例子显示相同的:

#!/usr/bin/ruby -w

time = Time.new

# Components of a Time
puts "Current Time : " + time.inspect
puts time.year  # => Year of the date 
puts time.month  # => Month of the date (1 to 12)
puts time.day   # => Day of the date (1 to 31 )
puts time.wday  # => 0: Day of week: 0 is Sunday
puts time.yday  # => 365: Day of year
puts time.hour  # => 23: 24-hour clock
puts time.min   # => 59
puts time.sec   # => 59
puts time.usec  # => 999999: microseconds
puts time.zone  # => "UTC": timezone name

这将产生以下结果:

Current Time : Mon Jun 02 12:03:08 -0700 2008
2008
6
2
1
154
12
3
8
247476
UTC

Time.utc,Time.gm和Time.local函数:

可用于这两个函数以标准格式来格式化日期如下:

# July 8, 2008
Time.local(2008, 7, 8) 
# July 8, 2008, 09:10am, local time
Time.local(2008, 7, 8, 9, 10)  
# July 8, 2008, 09:10 UTC
Time.utc(2008, 7, 8, 9, 10) 
# July 8, 2008, 09:10:11 GMT (same as UTC)
Time.gm(2008, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11) 

下面的例子,在一个数组来获取所有组件按以下格式:

[sec,min,hour,day,month,year,wday,yday,isdst,zone]

尝试以下操作:

#!/usr/bin/ruby -w

time = Time.new

values = time.to_a
p values

这将产生以下结果:

[26, 10, 12, 2, 6, 2008, 1, 154, false, "MST"]

这个数组可以传递给Time.utc或Time.local函数得到不同的日期格式如下:

#!/usr/bin/ruby -w

time = Time.new

values = time.to_a
puts Time.utc(*values)

这将产生以下结果:

Mon Jun 02 12:15:36 UTC 2008

跟随着的方式来获得内部表示(依赖于平台)历元以来的秒数时间:

# Returns number of seconds since epoch
time = Time.now.to_i 

# Convert number of seconds into Time object.
Time.at(time)

# Returns second since epoch which includes microseconds
time = Time.now.to_f

时区和夏令时:

可以使用一个 Time 对象来获取相关的所有信息的时区和夏令如下:

time = Time.new

# Here is the interpretation
time.zone    # => "UTC": return the timezone
time.utc_offset # => 0: UTC is 0 seconds offset from UTC
time.zone    # => "PST" (or whatever your timezone is)
time.isdst   # => false: If UTC does not have DST.
time.utc?    # => true: if t is in UTC time zone
time.localtime # Convert to local timezone.
time.gmtime   # Convert back to UTC.
time.getlocal  # Return a new Time object in local zone
time.getutc   # Return a new Time object in UTC

格式化时间和日期:

有各种各样的方式来格式化日期和时间。下面是一个例子,说明几个:

#!/usr/bin/ruby -w
time = Time.new

puts time.to_s
puts time.ctime
puts time.localtime
puts time.strftime("%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S")

这将产生以下结果:

Mon Jun 02 12:35:19 -0700 2008
Mon Jun 2 12:35:19 2008
Mon Jun 02 12:35:19 -0700 2008
2008-06-02 12:35:19

时间算术:

可以在时间上做简单的算术如下:

now = Time.now      # Current time
puts now

past = now - 10     # 10 seconds ago. Time - number => Time
puts past

future = now + 10    # 10 seconds from now Time + number => Time
puts future

diff = future - now   # => 10 Time - Time => number of seconds
puts diff

这将产生以下结果:

Thu Aug 01 20:57:05 -0700 2013
Thu Aug 01 20:56:55 -0700 2013
Thu Aug 01 20:57:15 -0700 2013
10.0

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